Green pepper variety is still unripe when harvested and has a citrusy flavor, with less bitterness than the other types. Green pepper, like black pepper, is made from unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green colour, such as with sulfur dioxide, canning, or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar.
Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes are used in some cuisines like Thai cuisine and Tamil cuisine. Their flavour has been described as “spicy and fresh,” with a “bright aroma.” They decay quickly if not dried or preserved, making them unsuitable for international shipping.
Red pepper consists of dried, fully ripe berries that are less spicy than the black pepper but have a powerful fruity aroma. Red peppercorns usually consists of ripe peppercorn drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.
Black pepper consists of dried berries harvested when turning from green to yellow and is considered to have a stronger floral flavor with a hint of eucalyptus. They are sweet to intensely spicy in flavor.
White pepper is produced from soaked red berries, and their flavor is described as having notes of fresh grass and lime because the outer skin of the fruit has been removed.